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4.6  Share Issues  Companies may make new share issues in order to try to raise extra capital by selling additional shares. A share issue always involves issuing exactly 100 shares. You can't order a share issue if the company already holds some of it's own shares (usually from a previous share issue).
When a company owns any of its own shares it always offers them for sale at the current share price. If you try to set a different price then your order will be ignored.
Note: Don't bother trying to buy back your own shares: this rule means they'll just get put back on the market. To take shares out of circulation to prevent anyone else buying them you need to buy them yourself with your own money, or with a different company.

4.7  Compulsory Share Issues  If a company holds none of its own shares (ie. the last share issue has been completely taken up) it may make new share issues (under the same rules as for share issues ordered by the MD) automatically, as follows:-
1. If the asset value of the company is less than zero.
2. If the asset value of the company (per share) is more than double the share price.
3. If the share price is more than double the asset value of the company (per share).
Note: In the calculations above, the "asset value" is the value of the whole company divided by the number of shares in circulation.
When a compulsory share issue is triggered it will be flagged in the game report, and the share issue will be made the following turn unless the company no longer requires it (i.e. you actually make a compulsory share issue if you trigger it two turns in a row).
Note: It doesn't matter which of the three conditions is triggered. If you fix the condition that triggered the waning but rip over another one in the process, then the share issue goes ahead.

4.8  Votes & Control  The choice of MD for each company is decided by a vote of all the shareholders. You automatically vote for yourself unless you order otherwise, but you may vote for other players. Any shares held by operating companies vote according to the preferences of the current MD (this includes any shares held by the company itself).
Note: If you make a share issue you create new shares that will vote for the current MD (that's you). Until someone buys them, of course. So it's a good move defensively during a takeover battle in the short term, but in the long term it's not going to help.

4.9  Advertising  Operating companies can also spend money on advertising to increase consumer demand for their commodities. The more expensive the commodity, the more you need to spend on advertising to increase the demand.
If any extra consumer demand generated by advertising is unfilled (ie. there isn't enough of the commodity offered for sale, so your customers can't buy it) then part of unfilled demand is lost.
Note: It's the consumer demand that increases, not your share of the market. You could spend a lot of money only for a rival to make the sales.